This is a set of experiments with HBase. From within ArcMap, you can create an HTable and export the content of a feature class into that table. The HTable is mapped into a Hive table to perform SQL Like queries on it and of course the Spatial Framework UDFs can be applied for spatial operations. If Hive is not fast enough for you, try Impala. Finally, by taking advantage of the RowKey design, a spatial index is derived using geohash to be later used in a MapReduce big spatial joins job.
Like usual all the source code can be found here.